Chilean training ship, probably GENERAL BAQUEDANO, near Sydney Harbour Bridge (9348646564).jpg 2,126 × 2,795; 449 KB Christian Radich.jpg 1,944 × 2,592; 1.22 MB Climbing the rigging (4882634523).jpg 997 × 665; 145 KB Belfry. Watercourses or channels alongside or central to the keel or keelson, through which water could drain into the pump well. A thin covering of metal or wood, to protect hulls from marine life or fouling, or to stabilize and protect surface material applied for that purpose. See also Ribband carvel. (p. 1107). G-3). G-9n). The head, or extremity, of a floor timber. A balcony mounted across the stern. A fore-and-aft framing timber whose heel was fayed to the forwardmost cant frame and which reinforced the bow of a large, round-bowed vessel; hawse pieces were so named because the hawse holes were partially cut through them. Lines [Hull lines]. Whipstaff (Fig. Forward of the cant frames and fayed to them, in large round-bowed vessels, were the frames running parallel to the keel and stem, sometimes called knuckle timbers; more accurately, these were the hawse pieces and knight heads, the latter being the frames adjacent to the apron or stem-son that extended above the deck to form bitts and support the bowsprit. Variously, a short, raised foredeck, the forward part of the upper deck between the foremast and the stem, or the quarters below the foredeck. A timber mounted athwartships to support decks and provide lateral strength; large beams were sometimes called baulks. G-14). G-9). A mark denoting the location or sweep of a ribband or batten. Narrowing line. Kevel head. Rudder blade (Fig. Boatswain : Pronounced "bosun," refers to the mate, warrant officer, or petty officer in charge of boats, rigging, and ground tackle aboard ship. The depth to which a hull is immersed; also, a drawing or plan. Treenail [Trunnel, Trennal] (Figs. Bite [Bitar (pl.)]. Pump well [Sump] (Fig. Also, a term used to designate the tip of an anchor palm. Ribbands [Ribbons, Battens]. The major transom, mounted on the inner sternpost, which formed the foundation for the counter and stern. One more word of caution. A curved piece between the forward end of the keel and the knee of the head; the gripe. The upper portions of the narrow ends of a vessel; cited individually in some documents as forepeak and afterpeak. The flat part of the rudder that diverts the water. We can ship rigging and sails gear anywhere. A deck running continuously from bow to stern, without breaks or raised elements. Variously, the upper part of the stern or the rail on top of the stern. A raised border at the edge of a hatch whose function was to prevent water from entering the space below. It’s usually a vertical plate or a board situated at the stern of the vessel. In most cases, animal hair, wool, or moss was soaked in pitch or resin and laid in a luting cove, which was cut in the lower inside surface of the overlapping plank. Deck hook. G-11). The cavity or compartment in the bottom of a hull, usually near amidships, where bilgewater collected and from which it was pumped out or bailed. G-7a). Bilge boards. Spirketting (Fig. G-12e). I have them on my Kindle - cheap way to go - and along with zu Monfeld's book and others have most of the answers to any question you might have about rigging. The area of the hull’s bottom on which it would rest if grounded; generally, the outer end of the floor. Pitch [Tar]. The longitudinal joint between two timbers or planks; the term usually refers to planking seams, the longitudinal juxtaposition of the edges of planks in the sides or decks, which were made watertight. Figure G-2. G-5). Illustrated Glossary of Ship and Boat Terms, Keywords: Illustrated Glossary of Ship and Boat Terms, [The following illustrated glossary first appeared in its entirety in Wooden Ship Building and the Interpretation of Shipwrecks, by J. Richard Steffy (1994). G-10). The confusion extends to modern publications. The mast is supported by stays and shrouds that are known as the standing rigging because they are Diagonal framing. G-3). Ratings are stated in short tons (2,000 lbs.) The vessel was careened or drydocked to perform this task. Counter timbers (Figs. Gunport framing. The only rigging used as standing rigging and I believe I also rigged the Braces as well. Bevel (Fig. The mast is supported by stays and shrouds that are known as the standing rigging because they are made fast; the shrouds also serve as ladders to permit the crew to … See Plate knee. A tool used for boring holes. A short plank inserted between two strakes of planking so that the regular strakes did not have to be made too wide; usually located at the bow or stern ends of bottom or lower side strakes. The surface of a plank overlapped by a neighbor is called a land, and this double thickness is normally held together with closely spaced rivets or nails clenched over metal washers called roves. Mold loft. A knee made from iron plate. Futtock plank. The strain on a hull that causes its ends to droop. A knee or knee-shaped structure, fixed to the forward surface of the stem, that formed the cutwater at its lower end and supported the headrails and figurehead at its upper end. There is a variety of sail plans that propel sailing ships, employing square-rigged or fore-and-aft sails. Also, in various times and places, the name given to the uppermost continuous strake of side planking or the upper edge of the uppermost strake. The elevations of the tops of the floor timbers and deadwoods; in most cases, the curved line formed by the bottom of the keelson, stemson, and sternson. Way. No matter where you are, Nance & Underwood will always be here to assist you. Until the middle of the medieval period, the practice was to mount rudders on one or both stern quarters; these were known as quarter rudders. shipping and sailing between points in the same country. They were essentially long knees laid as half beams. Drift bolt. A removable beam that supported the hatch cover and provided lateral strength when the hatch was not in use. Cracks occurring during curing are also referred to as checks. Charley Nobel (Fig. Plug treenails were commonly used on the exterior hull surfaces of ancient ships to prevent leakage and splitting of the planks around the fastenings. An opening in the stern through which the rudder stock passed. Scuttle. A vertical or upward-curving timber or assembly of timbers stepped into, or scarfed to, the after end of the keel or heel. G-12f). The cargo capacity of a vessel. Stem head (Fig. Shore. A metal plate used to join two timbers externally. A vertical steering lever that preceded the wheel; it was connected to the tiller by a toggle arrangement, and it was mounted in a bearing on the deck above the tiller. G-3). The surgeon’s compartment; the sick bay. Figures or lines cut into, or attached to, the stem and sternpost to indicate the depth at which each end of the hull is immersed. See Centerboard. G-7a). (p. 1111) 17, 19, and 29; G-7a, G-7b, G-7c, and G-7e). An angular junction of two planks or timbers. Decks and other appointments; a composite sketch, not representative of a particular vessel. Planking (Fig. See Partners. Drift. G-14e and G-17). Wart [Boss]. Rigging comprises the system of ropes, cables and chains, which support a sailing ship or sail boat's masts—standing rigging, including shrouds and stays—and which adjust the position of the vessel's sails and spars to which they are attached—the running rigging, including halyards, braces, sheets and vangs. Palm. G-11a). A general term for ropes and cables. A keel that is curved longitudinally so that it is deeper at its middle than at its ends. Running Rigging Standing Rigging Mooring up This refers to all the moveable lines that are used to pull up and adjust the sails. A large plate, or assembly of timbers, mounted on the side of a hull and lowered when sailing off the wind to increase lateral resistance and reduce leeway. Chase port. G-17). False stem. A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. Shroud. Binding strakes (Fig. Skeg (Figs. For a custom word search select Advanced Search. Belfries were usually mounted in the forecastle, although they sometimes appeared near the helm or mainmast; in some instances they were elaborate and ornate. G-3). Butt joint (Fig. Wells ranged from simple sumps between frames to watertight compartments extending the full height of the hold. G-7a and G-7b). Sternson knee. A type of scarf used primarily to join the keel to the stem or keel timbers to each other. from the Ma’agan Michael vessel, Israel: A preliminary report. G-6). In some cases the term load line denoted full-load draft. Molded and sided dimensions are used because of the changing orientation of timbers, such as In North America from the eighteenth century onward, and perhaps in other areas, false keels were called shoes. For a brief period, the two types were sometimes used in combination. Thole [Tholepin]. Rabbet plane (Fig. G-7e). Understanding freight shipping terms and definitions. Meginhufr. A small balcony on the side of a ship near its stern. G-5, nos. Companion. G-5 and G-7a–G-7e). A curved metal fastening resembling a staple, used to attach caulking battens to planking. G-9). The dimension of an unmolded surface; the distance across an outer frame surface, the forward or after surface of a Generally, the term refers to the grooves cut into the sides of the keel, stem, and sternpost, into which the garboards and hooding ends of the outer planking were seated. Dowel [Dowel pin] (Fig. Mortise-and-tenon joint (Fig. Poop [Poopdeck]. The flat part of the hull in the area of the midship frame; generally, the widest part of the hull, which separated the forward part from the after part. Stern construction: (a) stern framing of an eighteenth-century brig; (b) partial side view of the same stern near the post; (c) partial top view of the same stern; (d) lower stern framing of a galleon; (e) alternate stern details; and (f) one form of skeg installation on a small sloop. That part of the ship's body abaft the midships or dead-flat… frames, where “thick” and “wide” or “height” and “depth” become confusing. Lintle (Fig. Copper fastened. 29). Careen. Part of the knee of the head. In shipbuilding, the adjective applied to the most important timbers, or those having the greatest cross-sectional area; thus, on ancient vessels the main wale was usually the lowest and largest, while on later warships it was the one below the gunports; also, main breadth, main hatch, main hold, main keelson, etc. Stern. G-18). Heel. Tenon (Figs. included the ramming timber, the forward bow timbers configured to reinforce the ramming timber, and a metal sheath; in actual practice, the metal sheath is usually called the ram. G-13d). The Oxford Handbook of Maritime Archaeology. (p. 1140) Convex molds were called bend molds, concave molds were meginhufrs evolved from the triangular-sectioned sheer strakes of earlier, simpler Norse hulls. The term was also used infrequently to denote the midship frame. Ships Rigging The following pages contain ships rigging diagrams and descriptions. Drop strake (Fig. To shape or adjust a timber or timbers to the correct curvature or location; also, to correct discrepancies in a ship’s drawings. A rabbeted longitudinal timber fastened over the frames above the bilge to support transverse ceiling planking. Port: The left side of a ship, as the steersman stands facing forward. Patch tenon (Fig. A thin plank of fir or pine, most commonly used to sheath hulls. Infrequently, the term was also used to denote a hook scarf. slight arch or convexity to a beam or deck of a ship. Also, a term applied to the latticework deck in the heads of large ships. Standing knee [Standard] (Figs. The tools of the trade (27 terms) A wooden projection cut from the end of a timber or a separate wooden piece that was shaped to fit into a corresponding mortise. Cheek [Cheek knee] (Fig. Riser : A pipe leading from the fireman to fireplugs on upper deck levels. Cutwater (Fig. Classic Sailing directors Adam and Debbie have been working aloft for years and have seen all ages and sizes successfully climb the rigging on a tall ship from 70 year old ex ballet dancers to 13 year old sea scouts. A method of planking whereby one edge of the planks were straight while their opposite sides had two sloping edges of unequal length, reducing the plank widths to half. Ballast. We used our extensive logistics knowledge and experience to create a straightforward guide to freight shipping and logistics terminology. G-7a–G-7d). G-7c). K is the side of the keel, ⊗ the centerline, and S probably indicates the sheer line. The upper end of the stem. G-3, G-4a, G-4b, and G-5). In general context, all wooden hull members; specifically, those members that formed the frames of a hull. Across the ship from side to side; perpendicular to the keel. Frames: (a) an example of double framing—a square frame of an early-nineteenth-century merchant ship; (b) two additional commonly used frame timber joints; (c) room and space of a popular framing plan; (d) some vessels were framed with a pair of overlapping floor timbers having arms of unequal length, resulting in an even number of timbers in each frame; (e) lower side view of the framing plan of a large warship, where a pair of single frames (called filling frames) were set between double frames; futtocks, marked F, are shown by number; in such an arrangement, the room and space included the filling frames; and (f) bevels and chamfers. G-18). 12). Rigging. An opening in the bulwarks to accommodate a sweep (large oar). A batten, pole, or line used to align frames; one end was mounted over the keel centerline, or atop the stem or sternpost, while the other end was marked and swung across each frame head to ensure that each side of the frame was equidistant from, and perpendicular to, the keel centerline. Also, a term sometimes applied to the main vertical timber, or stock, of a rudder (Fig. Included is the deck hardware and sailboat rigging terms. G-8). When used in the plural, especially in contemporary documents, bilges refers to the various cavities between the frames in the floor of the hold where bilge water tends to collect. Jeer bitts (Fig. A seagoing vessel propelled primarily by oars, but usually one that also could be sailed when necessary. The principal timbers of a vessel. G-8). Apertures cut in the bottom surfaces of frames over, or on either side of, the keel to allow water to drain into the pump well. G-6). A metal rod or bar whose sharpened ends were bent at right angles, used to fasten false keels to keels or to secure planking seams that tended to separate. The forward planks of wales that were strengthened by increased thickness near the stem; usually found on large, round-bowed vessels. One of the principal anchors of a ship, normally the one used first; in the last several centuries, it was usually the second largest anchor and was carried on the starboard bow. Curved scarf [Curved butt, S-scarf] (Fig. Auger (Fig. They were used in a variety of forms: with expanding wedges or nails in their ends, with tapered or square heads on their exterior ends, or completely unwedged and unheaded. (p. 1120) Shot locker (Fig. The upper horizontal timber framing a gunport, large square light, or gallery door. Standing rigging always stands permanently in place to support the masts and spars of a ship. A block used to cover the exposed ends of timbers and spars. Fore hood. Forecastle. Outer stem. Stern knee (Fig. Keel (Figs. Best bower. In a general sense, the forward part of a vessel; the extreme bow area; also, a name sometimes given to the figurehead or, on later vessels, to the latrine. G-8). A strong iron bar, pointed or chisel-shaped at one end, used for prying or moving heavy timbers. (p. 1126). Cap [Capping piece]. Waterlines [Level lines]. The sailing terms for right and left come from a period when ships were steered by a steering board slung over right side of the boat. G-14a, c, d). A small opening, usually covered with a lid, in the side or deck for utilitarian purposes, such as a ballast port. G-5). Fine lines. Alarm device that signals the operator of low engine oil pressure, high engine coolant temperature and high hydraulic oil and transmission oil temperature. G-8). A small metal washer, used in clinker-built hulls, over which nail or rivet ends are flattened to lock the fastening. G-18). G-18b). The longest and largest timber in the knee of the head. Thwart. 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