[10] It is possible that there were contacts between northern-central Italy and the Mycenaean world at the end of the Bronze Age. In this phase, there was a heavy influence in Greece, most of Italy and some areas of Spain, from the most advanced areas of the eastern Mediterranean and the ancient Near East. Greek influence also occurred in the 4th and 5th centuries BC during Greece's Classical period. In the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus wrote that literary culture was one of the great achievements of the Etruscans. Information recall - access the knowledge you've gained regarding the Etruscans Knowledge application - use your knowledge to answer questions about the role of gods and spirits in Etruscan life At the height of Etruscan power, elite Etruscan families grew very rich through trade with the Celtic world to the north and the Greeks to the south, and they filled their large family tombs with imported luxuries. It is likely that individuals taken in battle would be ransomed back to their families and clans at high cost. In contrast to terracotta and bronze, there was apparently little Etruscan sculpture in stone, despite the Etruscans controlling fine sources of marble, including Carrara marble, which seems not to have been exploited until the Romans. Update 2: thank u, ill give the best answer to u when the system lets me. Herodotus , for example, argued that the Etruscans descended from a people who invaded Etruria from Anatolia before 800 bce and established themselves over the native Iron Age inhabitants of the region, whereas Dionysius of Halicarnassus believed that the Etruscans were of local Italian origin. Centuries before Rome’s rise, they built cities along fortified hilltops, developed a system of roads, and invented the “Roman” arch. $269.95 $59.95. Their own name for themselves, however, is the same as that of one of their leaders, Rasenna. The chief ruler of a methlum was perhaps a zilach. 562–65. There are three theories about the Etruscans origin: 1. Tarchon lent his name to the city of Tarchna, or Tarquinnii, as it was known by the Romans. Etruscan settlements were frequently built on hills – the steeper the better – and surrounded by thick walls. Attested from 700 BC to AD 50, the relation of Etruscan to other languages has been a source of long-running speculation and study. Like many ancient societies, the Etruscans conducted campaigns during summer months, raiding neighboring areas, attempting to gain territory and combating piracy as a means of acquiring valuable resources, such as land, prestige, goods, and slaves. It was from the Etruscans that the Romans inherited many of their own cultural and artistic traditions, from the spectacle of gladiatorial combat, to hydraulic engineering, temple design, and religious ritual, among many other things. The last three phases of Etruscan civilization are called, respectively, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic, which roughly correspond to the homonymous phases of the ancient Greek civilization. During the later imperial times, when Etruria was just one of many regions controlled by Rome, the number of cities in the league increased by three. This is my homework :D. Update: Edit: Please no idiots like coner....I have 3hours before its gotta be in. They adapted the native Italic styles with influence from the external appearance of Greek architecture. Etruscan expansion was focused both to the north beyond the Apennine Mountains and into Campania. How to understand the will of deities, and how to behave, had been revealed to the Etruscans by two initiators, Tages, a childlike figure born from tilled land and immediately gifted with prescience, and Vegoia, a female figure. Tyrrhenus gave his name to the Tyrrhenians, the alternative name for the Etruscans. Little is known of it and even what is known of their language is due to the repetition of the same few words in the many inscriptions found (by way of the modern epitaphs) contrasted in bilingual or trilingual texts with Latin and Punic. In this interpretation, Etruscan cultural objects are considered influences rather than part of a heritage. As a polymath, his knowledge and expertise in countless disciplines is nearly unparalleled by any other character in the DC Universe. [11][18] The Etruscans developed a system of writing which uses symbols borrowed from Euboean Greek script, but the Etruscan language remains only partly understood, making modern understanding of their society and culture heavily dependent on much later and generally disapproving Roman and Greek sources. Though the battle had no clear winner, Carthage managed to expand its sphere of influence at the expense of the Greeks, and Etruria saw itself relegated to the northern Tyrrhenian Sea with full ownership of Corsica. It was only in the 5th century BC, when the Etruscan civilization had been established for several centuries, that Greek writers started associating the name "Tyrrhenians" with the "Pelasgians", and even then, some did so in a way that suggests they were meant only as generic, descriptive labels for "non-Greek" and "indigenous ancestors of Greeks", respectively. The territorial extent of Etruscan civilization reached its maximum around 750 BC, during the foundational period of the Roman Kingdom. Professor, Miami University. A second criterion is the opinion of the ancient sources. 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